International professional bodies. It is normal, but not universal, for a nation to have one professional, membership body (and if necessary a regulatory body) for a specialism such as accounting, law, medicine, architecture etc.: there is little competition between such bodies. Of course, members of the professions may work for organisations that certainly do compete in the market. In the UK, A Royal Charter may be endowed on a professional body to give it Chartered status and specific powers, including to have Chartered members, but this is not necessary. Having a charter granted by the monarch carries the responsibility for the body to put the public interest before that of its members. However, many have significant influence on national policy and legislation, representing the interests of their members. There are some, typically based in the USA or UK, that operate internationally.

Literature and documents. Academic papers published in recognised journals, publications, both documents and web pages, of professional bodies, and government documents.

Skills and competency frameworks. An employer may develop (or adopt from a profession) one or more competency frameworks within its organisation, defining the set of duties or tasks performed as part of a job with the standards which should be achieved in these duties, including the behaviours, knowledge and actions expected at various levels of proficiency. Such a framework may also be developed across a profession, by a professional body e.g. CIPD’s for HR, the UK-based but internationally adopted Skills Framework for the Information Age (SFIA, available in Arabic) for ICT, IFAC’s IES 7 for accounting.

CPD schemes.Continuing Professional Development or CPD essentially means an individual’s focus on continually learning about their chosen field of work, and keeping up to date, throughout their career. Professional institutes require that their members keep up to date in both knowledge and skills — that is, they continuously develop their professional capability. Institutes set the standards and processes for this activity, provide support and tools, and monitor its performance in their CPD schemes.

Skills survey. A research survey with Employers and Professional Individuals to identify their foreseen skills needs.

Gap analysis. Combining the results of the skills survey and literature review, this will identify the priority shortfalls in respect of the needs of Qatar for ICT. HR and accounting skills:.

Key professional competences.The important skills, knowledge and behaviours that are strategic to Qatari employers and individuals,

Definitions of cadres.The groups of people for whom specific professional development schemes could particularly be designed, e.g. apprentices, graduate entrants, mid-career developers, potential senior leaders.

Career path models.These are step by step descriptions of the progressive set of competences required in specific subsets of the profession (such as network management in ICT, recruitment in HR, or cost accounting) to reach a professionally qualified standard, from which the cadres or professionals in general can choose as foundations for their career development.

Career path models.These are step by step descriptions of the progressive set of competences required in specific subsets of the profession (such as network management in ICT, recruitment in HR, or cost accounting) to reach a professionally qualified standard, from which the cadres or professionals in general can choose as foundations for their career development.

Local CPD scheme.An adaptation of a particular example of a profession’s CPD scheme that characterises distinctive features appropriate to Qatar as opposed to the UK or generally.

CPD implementation plan.A project plan for the introduction of a CPD scheme to Qatar for one or more professions, which needs to be managed locally, firstly in an implementation programme and then overseen and maintained continuously into the future. This requires both a standing organisation to take permanent ownership of the issue, and specific governance for the implementation project.

Skills Council. An organisation created with the Government and Employers in partnership (possibly with education establishments and professional bodies as well) to direct the development of a specific set of key skills for the nation, possibly including the establishment of formal professions and their legal framework. Such a Council may cover a broad range of skills (for example, technology, finance, management or engineering), or be focussed on a narrower, nationally-critical set.

National skills strategy.The overarching plan of a Skills Council, or the Government in its absence, for developing one or more sets of skills.

Programme governance structure.The set of bodies and processes that implements the CPD plan or overall skills strategy. A group within a Skills Council might take on the role of a governing Board for the implementation programme for a particular skill set.

Local professional bodies.The equivalent of such bodies in other countries, established in Qatar by legislation for particular professions.

Legislation.The Government may put in place laws that enables the creation of bodies, i.e. professional institutes, with legal status, rights and duties in relation to their specific profession. The profession is thus given legal standing.

Professional standards.Typically defined by professional institutes for professionals in their fields, these are the expectations of knowledge, behaviour and competence required to be regarded as a professional.

Accreditation.The process by which individuals are accepted and endorsed as qualified professionals.

Regulation.It has become a requirement for a person to be registered or certified by a designated authority (a regulator) in order to practice in certain fields particularly where there is a risk from malpractice to people’s life, safety, liberty or wealth (such as medicine, law, and finance, but also construction). The regulatory body may be different to or a separate function of a professional institute. An unregulated occupation is one for which there is no such legal requirement. If it is desired to have national statutory regulation of a profession, then a registration system needs to be established by legislation with identified registrars and enforcement processes.

Register of accredited professionals.The official record of the people licenced to practice in a particular regulated profession.

Registrar.The body that administers the register of accredited professionals, licenced to practice in its field, and the enforcement of deregistration in accordance with set procedures for dealing with malpractice. Registration may be a function of a professional body, or separate to it.

Professional Individuals.People practicing in a particular profession, normally members of the recognised institute. Membership of the institutes will typically be at a number of levels with designations such as Student, Associate, Member, or Fellow, corresponding to a person’s level of qualification and experience, with a threshold representing full qualification or readiness to practice. A professional title, such as Chartered, Fellow, or Registered, has been recognised as a symbol of status in the community. Certain titles, e.g. Chartered and Registered, are regulated under law and are awarded against set educational and experiential requirements by the professional body. They may be rescinded if criteria are not maintained. These protected titles are not solely tied to regulated professions.

CPD tools and support. A professional body would typically operate a CPD scheme for its members, and provide them guidance and help, and templates for keeping their records. Increasingly these are online resources.

Development programmes.A professional body would typically offer structured programmes of training and learning, with supporting resources, to enable it members to attain accreditation, and maintain their CPD and thus their accredited status. In the absence of a national professional body these may have to be adopted from a foreign or international body, preferably overseen with some formal national arrangements. Employers can select appropriate programmes for their employees.

Communications plan. Part of the CPD implementation must involve creating and executing a range of information campaigns to reach all employers and potential professional individuals to explain the benefits of the scheme, any regulatory changes that will affect them, and what they need to do and when. A key message to communicate to all those involved is that while employers will, to meet their own business needs, train and support the development of their employees, it is the responsibility of the individual professionals to maintain their personal development plans and CPD throughout their career of employment or self-employment, within the framework of their professional body.

Enrolment programme.Enrolment programme

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